An assessment of phytoplankton distribution in the different altitudinal lakes of Arunachal Himalayan Region, India

Oyi Dai Nimasow, Karo Jongkey, Santosh Kumar Abhujam, Debangshu Narayan Das, Dhoni Bushi, Gibji Nimasow


An assessment of plankton distribution and physical and chemical parameters was undertaken in different altitudinal lakes of Arunachal Pradesh. The sampling and data analysis was performed following standard methods. Out of the total 66 species recorded, 15 species commonly occurred. Amphora sp., Bulbochaete sp., Closterium sp., Cymbella sp., Lyngbya sp., Mougeotia scalaris, Navicula sp., Nitzschia sp., Oedogonium sp., Pinnularia sp., Spirogyra sp., Stauroneis sp., Surirella sp., Synedra sp. and Zygnema sp. commonly occurred. Ganga Lake recorded the highest 33 species while Bone recorded the lowest 7 species. Bacillariophyceae was dominant representing 22 species while Chrysophyceae, Dinophyceae, Euglenophyceae, and Klebsormidiophyceae recorded only 1 species each. We found slight variations in physical and chemical properties due to altitude. The conductivity ranged between 4μS/cm (Kyalem) to 60μS/cm (Bone); total dissolved solid between 5mg/l (Sela) to 22mg/l (Mehao); pH between 6.8 (Mehao) to 9.3 (Hireng); highest dissolved oxygen between 4.77 mg/L (Kyalem) to 15.4 mg/L (Hireng); free carbon dioxide between 0.23 mg/L (Ganga) to 1.2 mg/L (Nagula); alkalinity between 3.4 mg/L (Mehao) to 8.2 mg/L (Hireng) and hardness between 3.7 mg/L (Mehao) to 17 mg/L (Pegu). The findings provide baseline data on phytoplankton distribution and water quality of different altitudinal lakes in the Arunachal Himalayan Region.


Altitude; Lake; Physical and chemical; Plankton; Sampling; Seasonal abundance


Abujam, S. K., Bushi, D., Jongkey, K., Nimasow, O. D., Nimasow, G. and Das, D. N. 2021. Spatial variation of the soil and water qualities in the mountain lakes at different altitude of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Ecology, Environment & Conservation, 27: S219-S225.

Adoni, A. D., Joshi, G., Ghosh, K., Chourasia, S. K., Vaishya, A. K., Yadav, M. and Verma, H. G. 1985. Workbook on Limnology. Pratibha Publishers, 216 pp.

APHA 1998. Standard methods for the estimation of water and waste water. 20th edn., American Waste Water Association and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington.

Bellinger, E. G. and Sigee, D. C. 2010. Freshwater algae (identification and use as bioindicators). Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK.

Bhat, F. A., Yousuf, A. R. and Aftab, A. 2011. Ecology and biodiversity in Pangong Tso (lake) and its inlet stream in Ladakh, India. International Journal of Biodiversity Conservation, 3(10): 501-511.

Bhatt, L. R., Lacoul, P., Lekha, H. D. and Jha, P. K. 1999. Physico-chemical characteristic and phytoplanktons for Taudha lake, Kathmandu. Pollution Research, 18(4): 353-358.

BIS. 2012. Indian standard drinking water – specification. Second Revision, Manak Bhavan, New Delhi. 0.pdf.

Cairns, J. J., Dickson, K. J. 1971. A simple method for the biological assessment of the effects of waste discharges on aquatic bottom-dwelling organisms. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 43(5): 755-772.

Chang, H. 2002. Spatial and temporal variations of water quality in the river and its tributaries, Seoul, Korea, 1993–2002. Water Air Soil Pollution, 161: 267-284.

Das, S. K., Adhikary, S. P. 2012. Diversity of freshwater algae in Arunachal Pradesh and their distribution in different altitudes. Journal of Indian Botanical Society, 91(1-3): 160-182.

Dhanapathi, M. V. S. S. S. 2000. Taxonomic notes on the Rotifers from India (from 1889–2000). Indian Association of Aquatic biologists (IAAB), Publication No. 10. Hyderabad.

Edmondson, W. T. 1966. Changes in the oxygen deficit of Lake Washington. Verhandlungen des Internationalen Verein Limnologie, 16: 153-158.

Field, C. B., Behrenfeld, M. J., Randerson, J. T. and Falkowski, P. G. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science, 281: 237-240.

Ganai, A. H. and Parveen, S. 2014. Effect of physico-chemical conditions on the structure and composition of the phytoplankton community in Wular Lake at Lankrishipora, Kashmir. International Journal of Biodiversity Conservation, 6(1): 71-84.

Ganai, A. H., Parveen, S. and Khan, A. A. 2010. Phytoplankton diversity at Watlab Ghat in Wular lake, Kashmir. Journal of Ecology and The Natural Environment, 2(8): 140-146.

Hazarika, A. K. and Kalita, U. 2020. Limnological assessment of Tasek lake – a Tectonic lake of Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India and its impact on livelihood development. Ecology, Environment & Conservation, 26(1): 125-134.

Jindal, R. and Thakur, R. K. 2013. Diurnal variations of plankton diversity and physicochemical characteristics of Rewalsar Wetland, Himachal Pradesh, India. Recent Research in Science and Technology, 5(3): 4-9.

Jindal, R., Thakur, R. K. and Singh, U. B. 2014a. Phytoplantons dynamics and water quality of Prashar Lake, Himachal Pradesh. Sustainability of Water Quality and Ecology, 3-4: 101-113.

Jindal, R., Thakur, R. K. and Singh, U. B. 2014b. Phytoplankton dynamics and species diversity in a shallow eutrophic, natural mid-altitude lake in Himachal Pradesh (India): role of physicochemical factors. Chemical Ecology, 30(4): 328-338.

Kangabam, R., Sarojini, R. D., Boominathan, D. and Govindaraju, M. 2015. Ecology, disturbance and restoration of Loktak Lake in Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot - An overview. NeBIO - An International Journal of Environment and Biodiversity, 6(2): 9-15.

Kumar, P., Wanganeo, A. and Sonaullah, F. 2012. Limnological study on two high altitude Himalayan ponds, Badrinath, Uttarakhand. International Journal of Ecosystem, 2(5): 103-111.

Kumara, S., Khan, J. A. and Thakur, M. S. 2018. Study on phytoplankton, zooplankton and ichthyo fauna of Motia lake. Research & Reviews: Journal of Zoological Sciences, 6(2): 25-49.

Marañón, E. 2009. Phytoplankton size structure. In: Steele, J., Thorpe, S. and Turekian, K. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of ocean sciences. Academic Press, Elsevier, Massachusetts, USA, pp. 445-452.

Munshi, J. D., Roy, S. P. and Munshi, J. S. 2010. Manual of freshwater biota. Narendra Publishing House, Delhi, India.

Nandan, S. N. and Patel, R. J. 1992. Ecological studies of algae. In: Mishra, S. H. and Saksena, D. N. (Eds.), Aquatic ecology. Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi, 69-99 pp..

Negi, R. K. and Rajput, V. 2015. Assessment of phytoplankton diversity in relation to abiotic factors of Nainital Lake of Kumaon Himalyas of Uttarakhand, India. Asian Journal of Scientific Research, 8(2): 157-164.

Pant, B., Lohani, V., Trakroo, M. D. and Tewari, H. 2017. Study of water quality by physicochemical analysis of a Himalayan lake of Uttarakhand, India. Ecology, Environment & Conservation, 23(2): 1128-1134.

Poongodi, R., Bhavan, P. S., Vijayan, P., Kannan, S. and Karpagam, S. 2009. Population of zooplankton in relation to physico-chemical parameters of a seasonal pond. Research in Environment and Life Sciences, 2: 105-110.

Radhakrishnan, S., Bhavan, P. S., Vijayan, P., Kannan, S. and Karpagam, S. 2009. Assessment of phytoplankton population in a pond water. Research in Environment and Life Sciences, 2: 77-82.

Raj, K. B. G., Remyam S, N. and Kumar, V. K. 2013. Remote sensing-based hazard assessment of glacial lakes in Sikkim Himalaya. Current Science, 104(3): 359-364.

Saha, S. B., Bhattacharya, S. B. and Choudhary, A. 2000. Diversity of phytoplankton of a sewage pollution brackish water tidal ecosystem. Journal of Environmental Biology, 21(1): 9-14.

Saini, R. K., Swain, S., Patra, A., Khanday, G. J., Gupta, H., Purushothaman, P. and Chakrapani, G. J. 2008. Water chemistry of three Himalayan lakes: Dal (Jammu & Kashmir), Khajjiar (Himachal Pradesh) and Nainital (Uttarakhand). Himalayan Geology, 29(1): 63-72.

Shanthi, R., Bhavan, P. S., Vijayan, P., Radhakrishnan, S. and Karpagam, S. 2010. Evaluation of water quality and plankton population in a perennial shallow lake. Research in Environment and Life Sciences, 3: 163-168.

Sharma, R. C. and Singh, S. 2018. Water quality and phytoplankton diversity of high altitude wetland, Dodi Tal of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Biodiversity International Journal, 2(6): 484-493.

Sharma, R. C. and Kumar, R. 2017. Water quality assessment of sacred glacial Lake Satopanth of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Applied Water Science, 7: 4757-4764.

Sharma, R. C. and Tiwari, V. 2018a. Seasonal physico-chemical characterization of water of sacred lake Nachiketa Tal, Garhwal Himalaya. Applied Water Science, 8: 164.

Sharma, R. C. and Tiwari, V. 2018b. Phytoplankton diversity in relation to physicochemical environmental variables of Nachiketa Tal, Garhwal Himalaya. Biodiversity International Journal, 2(2): 128-136.

Singh, V. B., Ramanathan, A. L. and Mandal, A. 2016. Hydrogeochemistry of high altitude lake: a case study of the Chandra Tal, Western Himalaya, India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 9: 308.

Singh, Y., Khattar, J. and Singh, D. P. 2014. Limnology and cyanobacterial diversity of high altitude lakes of Lahaul-Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India. Journal of Biosciences, 39(4): 643-657.

Trivedi, R. K. and Goel, P. K. 1986. Chemical and biological methods for water pollution studies. Environmental publication (Karad), New Delhi, India.

Wetzel, R. G. 1983. Limnology. Saunders Publishers, Philadelphia.

WHO 2003. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO, Geneva.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

COPYRIGHT of this Journal vests fully with the National Instional Institute of Ecology. Any commercial use of the content on this site in any form is legally prohibited.