Insect Diversity in Mangrove Communities in Small Islands of Wakatobi National Park, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

Suriana -, Jamili -, Parakkasi -


Insects play very important role in mangrove community as pollinators, predators, as well as prey. They also play role in the decomposition process,  cycles of matter and energy flow. The diversity of insects is related to the diversity of the mangrove community,  directly or indirectly.This study reveals the diversity of insects on mangrove communities in small islands national park Wakatobi, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. We used line transects toward the shoreline crossing mangrove formation, up to mangrove formation that borderingwith land plants. In each  transect, several 10 x 10 m observations plots were laid according to the width of the mangrove communities. Insects were collected using insect nets, pitfall traps and leaf litter samples. Shannon Weiner index of diversity (H) was computed. The results showed variation in number of insects between islands. At Keledupa Island, there are 7 orders of insects that include 21 families and 39 genera.  At Lentea Island there are 5 orders, including 15 families and 28 genera. At Hoga island, there were only 4 orders, 8 families, and 13 genera. Among them, there were 19 species of arboreal insects, 21 species of soil insects and 5 species of aquatic insects. The dominant insects were Hymenoptera, with 11 species. The diversity index of insects was highest in Kaledupa Island (3.481), followed by Lentae Island (3.252), and Hoga island (2.44). The other significant finding of the study is that the saline water insect both Hemiptera and Diptera (brine flies) were recorded for the first time from Indonesia in the mangrove community of Kaledupa and Lentea Island.


Mangrove; Small Islands; Arboreal Insect; Ground Insect; Aquatic Insect;, Diversity Index; Wakatobi National Park


Adeduntan; Adeniyi, S. and Adeyinka, O.J. 2013. Diversity and abundance of Arthropods and tree speciesas influenced by different forest vegetation types in Ondo State, Nigeria.International Journal of Ecosystem 3: 19-23.

Anderson, N.M.andPolhemus, J.T. 1976. Water-striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae, Velidae, etc). Pages 187-224, In: Ceng, L. (Editor), Marine Insects. North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam; American Elsevier Publishing. New York.

Axtell,C.R. 1967. Seaweed flies (Diptera: Coeloptidae, etc). Pages 415-442, In: Ceng, L. (Editor), Marine Insects. North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam; American Elsevier Publishing. New York.

Bolton, B. 1994. Identification Guide to the Ant Genera of the World. President and Fellow of Harvard College, USA. 222 pages.

Borror, D.J.; Charles, A.T. and Norman F.J. 1996. Pengenalan Pelajaran Serangga. Edisi ke-6. (Partosoedjono, S; translator). Gajah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta. 254 pages.

Buck, M.; Marshall, S.A. and Ceung D.B. 2008. Identification atlas of the Vespidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata) of the northeastern Nearctic region. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification 5: 1-492.

Cannicci, S.; Burrows, D.; Fratini, S.; Smith, T.J.; Offenberg, J. and Dahdouh-Guebas. 2008. Faunal impact on vegetation structure and ecosystem function in mangrove forest: A review. Aquatic Botany 89: 186-200.

Cheng, L.; Spear, L. and Ainley, D.G. 2010. Importance of marine insect (Heteroptera: Gerridae,Halobatesspp.) as prey of eastern tropical pacific seabirds. Marine Ornithology 38: 91-95.

Cogni, R.; Freitas, A.V.L. and Oliveira, P.S. 2003. Interhabitat differences in ant activity on plant foliage: ant at extra-floral nectaries of Hibiscus pernambucensis in sandy and mangrove forest. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 107: 125-131.

Cogni, R.and Freitas, A.V.L. 2002. The ant assemblage visiting extrafloral nectaries of Hibiscus pernambucensis (Malvaceae) in a mangrove forest in southeast Brazil (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology 40: 373-384.

Couri, M.S.;Pont, A.C. and Penny, N.D. 2006. Muscidae (Diptera) from Madagascar: Identification keys, description of new species, and new records. Proceedings of The California Academy of Sciences 57: 799-923.

Grampurohit, B. and Karkhanis, H. 2013. Insect Biodiversity at Mangrove Ecosystem. National Conference on Biodiversity: Status and challenges in conservation-Faveo-2013.

Hashimoto, Y. 2011. 100 genus (12 Subfamily) Semut Kalimantan dan Malaysia (Yusah, K.M; translator), 39 pages. http: //

Hava, J. 2004. World keys to the genera and subgenera of Dermestidae (Coleoptera), with Descriptions, nomenclature and distributional records. Acta Musei Nationalis Pragae, Series B, Natural History 60: 149-164.

Hughes, B.J.; Daily, G.C. and Ehrlich, P.R. 2000. Conservation of insect diversity: a habitat approach. Conservation Biology 14: 1788-1797.

Jamili, 2010. Karaktristik Ekosistem Mangrove Pada Pulau-pulau Kecil di Taman Nasional Wakatobi Sulawesi Tenggara. Dissertation, Bogor Agricultural Institute, Bogor. 234 pages.

Kathiresan, K. 2003. Insect foliovory in mangroves. Indian Journal of Marine Science 32: 237-239.

Lawrens, J.F. and Britton, E.B. 1994. Australian Beetles. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne. 192 pages.

Mchenga, I.S.S. and Ali A.I. 2013. Macro-fauna community in a tropical mangrove forest of Zanzibar Island, Tanzania. Global Journal of Bio-Science and Biotechnology 2: 260-266.

Murphy, D.H. 1990. The recognition of some insect associated with mangroves tree in Thailand. Pages 15-23, In: Mangrove Ecosystem. Occasional Paper 7. UNDP/UNESCO, New Delhi.

Nagelkerken, I.; Blaber, S.J.M.; Boullon,S.; Green, P.; Haywood, M.; Kirton, L.G.; Meyneckle, J.O.; Pawlik, J.; Penrose, H.M.; Sasekumer, A. and Somerfield, P.J.2008. The habitat function of mangroves for terrestrial and marine: A review. Aquatic Botany 89: 155-185.

Nielsen, M.G.; Christian, K.; Henriksen, P.G. and Birkmose, D. 2005. Respiration by mangrove ants Camponotus anderseni during nest submersion associated with tidal inundation in northern Australia. Physiological Entomology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3032.2005.00492.x

Nielsen, M.G.1997. Nesting biology of mangrove mud-nesting ant Polirachis sokolova Forel (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in northern Australia. Insect Society 44: 15-21.

Nihel, S.S. and Carvalho, C.J.B.D. 2009. The Muscini flies of the world (Diptera, Muscidae): identification key and generic diagnoses. Zootaxa 1976: 1-24.

Packer, L.; Genaro, J. and Sheffield, C.S. 2007. The bee genera of Eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Arthrophoda Identification 3: 1-32.

Rahmawati; Kusmana, C. andYayuk. 2005. Soil insect diversity in mangrove forest in RawaopaLatumoihai National Park, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Feromena Forestry Science Journal 1: 61-64.

Santos, G.M.M.; Fihlo, C.C.; Resende, J.J.; Cruiz, J.D. and Marques, A.M. 2007. Diversity and community structure of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in three ecosystem in Itaparica Island, Behia State, Brazil. Neotropical Entomology 36: 180-185.

Scudder, G.G.E. 2009. The importance of insect. Pages 7-32, In: Foottit R.G. and Adler, P.H. (Editor), Insect Biodiversity Science and Society. Wiley-Blackwell, John Wiley. London.

Simson, K. 1976. Shore flies and brine flies (Diptera: Ephydridae). Pages 465-492, In: Ceng, L. (Editor), Marine Insects. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam

Stearn, A.M. and Krieger, K.A. 2008. Atlas of the aquatic true bugs (class insect: Order Hemiptera. National Center for Water Quality Research Heidelberg College, Tiffin, Ohio, USA.

Suriana and Jamili. 2013. Diversity of hymenoptera insect and their ecological role in mangrove community at Wakatobi National Park Area, southeast Sulawesi. The 8th International Conference on Innovation and Collaboration Towards Asean Community 2015. Kendari. 17 - 19 October 2013.

Sutrisno, H. 2008. Moth diversity at GunungHalimun-Salak National Park, west Java. Hayati Journal of Biosciences 15: 111-117.

Tokeshi, M.;Yoko-O.; Daud J.R.P. and Domits, M. 2007. Hypolycaena erylus feeding on mangrove apple and attended by Oecophyla weaver ants, in north Sulawesi, Indonesia. Tropical Lepidoptera 17: 1-2.

Twilley, R.R.;Snedaker, S.C.; Yanez-Arancibia, A. and Medina, E. 1996. Biodiversity and ecosystem processes in tropical estuaries: Perspectives of mangrove ecosystem. Pages 327-370. In: Mooney, H.A., Cushman, J.H., Medina, E., Sala, O.E. and Schulze, E.D. Functional Role of Biodiversity: A Global Perspective. John Wiley, New York.

Vang, L.V.; Inomata, S.; Kimjo, M.; Komai, F. and Ando, T. 2005. Sex pheromone of five Olethreutine species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with the seedling and fruits of mangrove plant in the Ryukyu Island, Japan: Identification and field evaluation. Journal of Chemical Ecology 31: 859-878.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

COPYRIGHT of this Journal vests fully with the National Instional Institute of Ecology. Any commercial use of the content on this site in any form is legally prohibited.