Flowering and Fruiting Dynamics of Medicinal Plants in Relation to Climatic Conditions

R. K.S. Tiwari, K. K. Chandra


We studied 159 medicinal plant species of 53 families, grown in nursery cafeteria for three consecutive years for their reproductive phonology. Plant species differed markedly in their response to monthly temperature, relative humidity and rainfall pattern of the area. An average 7.54% species bore regular flowering and fruiting throughout the year, 15.72% species experienced no flower, while 41.08% species were unable to form fruit. Peak flowering and fruiting was observed in August whereas in winter and summer months only few species enterd their reproductive phase. A significant positive correlation was found between reproductive phenology and rainfall, average low temperature and relative humidity while correlation between reproductive phase and average high temperature and the rate of evapotranspiration were not significant at p ≤ 0.05. Average high temperature of 30 to 31oC and average low temperature around 24oC were found most suitable to induce flowering and fruiting in medicinal plants. Low average temperature below 14oC and high temperature above 36oC was found to be adverse to flowering and fruiting of medicinal plants under study.


Phenology; Flowering; Fruiting; Rainfall; Temperature.


Barlow, K.M.; Christy, B.P.; Oleary, C.J.; Riffkin, P.A. and Nuttal, J.G. 2015. Simulating the impact of extreme heat and frost events on wheat crop production: a review. Field Crop Research 171:109-119.

Bhat, D.M. and Murali, K.S. 2001. Phenology of understorey species of tropical moist forest of Western Ghats region of Uttara Kannada district in South India. Current Science 81: 799-805.

Dahlgren, J.P.; Zeipel, H.V. and Ehrlé, N.J. 2007. Variation in vegetative and flowering phenology in a forest herb caused by environmental heterogeneity. American Journal of Botany 94(9): 1570-1576.

Duraisamy, S. and Paulsamy, S. 2010. Phenological observations and population dynamics of six uncommon medicinal plants in the grasslands of Nilgiris, Western Ghats, India. Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology 4(2): 185-192.

Gariglio, N.; Weber, M.; Casto, D. and Micheloud, N. 2012. Influence of the environmental conditions, the variety and different cultural practices on the phenology of peach in the central area of Santa Fe (Argentina). Pages 217-240, In: Zhang, X. (Editor) Phenology and Climate Change. Intech Publication, Rijeka, Croatia.

Godoy, O.; Castro-Díez, P.; Valladares, F. and Costa-Tenorio, M. 2009. Different flowering phenology of alien invasive species in Spain: evidence for the use of an empty temporal niche? Plant Biology 1: 1-9.

Hatfield, J.L. and Prueger, J.H. 2015. Temperature extremes: effect on plant growth and development. Weather and Climate Extremes 10(A): 4-10.

Joshi, V.C. and Janardanam, M.K. 2004. The diversity of life-form type, habitat preference and phenology of the endemics in the Goa region of the Western Ghats, India. Journal of Biogeography 31(8): 1227-1238.

Khah, E.M. and Passam, H.C. 1992. Flowering, fruit set and development of the fruit and seed of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivated under conditions of high ambient temperature. Journal of Horticultural Sciences 67(2): 251-258.

Kikim, A. and Yadava, P.S. 2001. Phenology of tree species in subtropical forests of Manipur in northeastern India. Tropical Ecology 42(2): 269-276.

Krishnan, R.M. 2002. Reproductive phenology of a wet forest understorey in the Western Ghats, South India. Global Ecology and Biogeography 11: 179-182.

Kudo, G. 1992. Performance and phenology of Alpine herbs along a now melting sgradient. Ecological Research 7: 297-304.

Linderholm, H.W. 2006. Growing season changes in the last century. Agriculture, Forestry and Meteorolpgy 137: 1-14.

Nakar, R.N. and Jadeja, B.A. 2015. Flowering and fruiting phenology of some herbs, shrubs and under shrubs from Girnar Reserve Forest, Gujarat, India. Current Science 108(1): 111-118.

Opler, P.A.; Frankie, G.W. and Baker, H.G. 1980. Comperative phenological studies of treelet and shrub species in tropical Wet and Dry forests in the low lands of Costa Rica. Journal of Ecobiology 68: 167-188.

Ramirez, N. and Briceno, M. 2011. Reproductive phenology of 233 species from four herbaceous and shrubby communities in great savanna plateau of Venezuela. AOB Plants 2011: 1–17. doi: 10.1093/aobpla/plr014.

Rathcke, B. and Lacey, E.P. 1985. Phenological patterns of terrestrial plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16: 179-214.

Singh, K.P. and Kushwaha , C.P. 2006. Diversity of flowering and fruiting phenology of trees in a tropical deciduous forest in India. Annals of Botany 97: 265-276.

Shivaraj, N. and Krishnamurthy, K.V. 1992. Fruiting behavior of herbaceous and woody flora of Shervaroy hills in Eastern Ghats, India. Tropical Ecology 33(2): 191-199.

Shivaraj, N. and Krishnamurthy, K.V. 1989. Flowering phenology in the vegetation of Shervaroys, South India. Vegetatio 79: 85-88.

Risberg, L. and Granstrom, A. 2009. The effect of timing of forest fire on phenology and seed production in the fire-dependent herbs Geranium bohemicum and G. lanuginosum in Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management 257: 1725-1731.

Zhang, G.; Song, Q. and Yang, D. 2006. Phenology of Ficus racemosa in Xishungbanna, South-west China. Biotropica. 38: 334-341.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

COPYRIGHT of this Journal vests fully with the National Instional Institute of Ecology. Any commercial use of the content on this site in any form is legally prohibited.