Tree Diversity and Ecosystem Carbon Stock Patterns Along Selected Land Use, Land Cover Systems in Tripura, Northeastern India

Bal Krishan Choudhary, Koushik Majumdar, Badal Kumar Datta

Abstract


Natural Forests (NF), Managed Plantations (MP) and Jhum Fallow (JF), including their soils are important stocks and sequester of Carbon . Plant diversity, biomass and total ecosystem carbon in these three  lands use systems of Tripura, northeast India, were estimated during 2013 using  100×10 m transects  where trees were assessed in ten 10×10 m contiguous quadrats, shrubs in 5×5m quadrats, and herbs and litter in 1×1m nested quadrats. Soil was sampled and the understorey biomass was estimated in each transect. Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) stocks were estimated at five depths in each plot. Tree species diversity was significantly high (p < 0.0001) in NF (83.1), followed by JF (3.8) and MP (1.8). Tree biomass (Mg ha-1) ranged from 127.22 (NF) to 5.78 (JF) and varied (p< 0.0001) among the three land uses. Higher C stock was estimated in NF (213.16) than in JF (159.28) and MP (131.76). Conversion of NF into JF and MP results in enormous loss of ecosystem organic C stock by 33.82- 61.77%. The C storage potential in these land uses may increase over time, if managed properly.

Keywords


Land Use; Diversity; Biomass; Soc; Ecosystem Carbon Pool; Edaphic Properties

References


Alice, F.; Montagnini, F. and Montero, M. 2004. Productividad en plantaciones puras y mixtas de especies forestales nativas en la Estación Biológica La Selva, Sarapiquí, Costa Rica. Agronomía costarricense. 28 (2): 61-71.

Anderson, J.M. and Ingram, J.S. 1994. Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility a Handbook of Methods. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K. 221 pages.

Batjes, N.H., 1996. Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world. European journal of soil science 47(2): 151-163.

Bouwman, A.F. 1990. Soils and the green house effect. Proceedings of the International Conference on soils and the green house effect. John Wiley, New York. USA.

Weil, R.R. and Brady, N.C. 2016. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 15th edition. Pearson education, Boston. 1104 pages.

Brown, S.; Gillespie, A.J. and Lugo, A.E. 1989. Biomass estimation methods for tropical forests with applications to forest inventory data. Forest science. 35 (4): 881-902.

Bouyocucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particles size analysis of soils. Agronomy Journal 54: 464.

Choudhury, B.U.K., Mohapatra, P., Das, A., T. Pratibha., Das, L., Nongkhlaw, R., Fiyaz, Abdul, Ngachan, S.V, Hazarika, S., Rajkhowa, D.J, and Munda, G.C. 2013. Spatial variability in distribution of organic carbon stocks in the soils of North East India. Current Science 104: 604-614.

Curtis, J.T. and McIntosh, R.P. 1950. The interrelations of certain analytic and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology 31 (3): 434-455.

Davidson, E.A. and Ackerman, I.L. 1993. Changes in soil carbon inventories following cultivation of previously untilled soils. Biogeochemistry 20 (3): 161-193.

Deb, D.B. 1981-1983. The Flora of Tripura State. Vols.I–II. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, New Delhi. 1018 pages.

Dixon, R.; Brown, S.; Houghton, R.E.A.; Solomon, A.M.; Trexler, M.C. and Wisniewski, J. 1994. Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science (Washington) 263(5144): 185-189.

Eglin, T.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S.L.; Barré, P.; Belassen, V.; Cadule, P.; Chenu, C.; Gasser, T.; Reichstein, M. and Smith, P. 2011. Overview on response of global soil carbon pools to climate and land use changes. Pages 183-199, In: Sauer, T.J.; Norman, J.M. and Sivakumar, M.V.K. (Editors) Sustaining Soil Productivity in Response to Global Climate Change Science, Policy, and Ethics. John Wiley, Chichester, U.K.

FAO. 2006b. Global Forest Resource Assessments 2005. Progress towards sustainable forest management. FAO Forestry Paper No. 146. Xx pages.

Follett, R. and Schimel, D.S. 1989. Effect of tillage practices on microbial biomass dynamics. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53(4): 1091-1096.

Forest Survey of India (FSI), Dehradun 2002. The manual of Instruction for field Inventory. 128 pages.

FSI (Forest Survey of India). 2011, State of Forest Report 2011. Forest Survey of Indiam Ministry of Environment and Forests, Dehradun.

Greenland, D.J.; Rimmer, D. and Payne, D. 1975. Determination of the structural stability class of English and Welsh soils, using a water coherence test. Journal of Soil Science 26(3): 294-303.

Guo, L.B. and Gifford, R.M. 2002. Soil carbon stocks and land use change a meta analysis. Global Change Biology 8(4): 345-360.

Gupta, A.K. 2000. Shifting cultivation and conservation of biological diversity in Tripura, Northeast India. Human Ecology 28(4): 605-629.

Hammer, Ø., Harper, D.A.T. and Ryan, P.D., 2001. Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica. http://palaeo-electronica.org/ 2001_1/past/past.pdf

Homann, P.S.; Sollins, P.; Chappell, H.N. and Stangenberger, A.G. 1995. Soil organic carbon in a mountainous, forested region relation to site characteristics. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59(5): 1468-1475.

Hontoria, C.; Saa, A. and Rodríguez-Murillo, J.C. 1999. Relation-ships between soil organic carbon and site characteristics in peninsular Spain. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63(3): 614-621.

Hook, P.B.; Burke, I.C. and Lauenroth, W.K. 1991. Heterogeneity of soil and plant N and C associated with individual plants and openings in North American short grass steppe. Plant and Soil 138(2): 247-256.

Houghton, R.A.; Skole, D.L.; Nobre, C.A.; Hackler, J.L.; Lawrence, K.T. and Chomentowski, W.H. 2000. Annual fluxes of carbon from deforestation and regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon. Nature 403 (6767): 301-304.

Houghton, R.A. 2005. Aboveground forest biomass and the global carbon balance. Global Change Biology 11(6): 945-958.

Huston, M.A.; Aarssen, L.W.; Austin, M.P.; Cade, B.S.; Fridley, J.D.; Garnier, E.; Grime, J.P.; Hodgson, J.; Lauenroth, W.K.; Thompson, K. and Vandermeer, J.H. , Wardle, D.A.2000. No consistent effect of plant diversity on productivity. Science 289. http://science.sciencemag.org/content/289/5483/1255.full

IPCC. 1996. Revised Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas inventories . Volume 3. Reference Manual. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/invs6.html

Iverson, L.R.; Brown, S.; Grainger, A.; Prasad, A. and Liu, D. 1993. Carbon sequestration in tropical Asia an assessment of technically suitable forest lands using geographic information systems analysis. Climate Research 3 (1-2): 23-38.

Jackson, R.B.; Schenk, H.J.; Jobbagy, E.G.; Canadell, J.; Colello, G.D.; Dickinson, R.E.; Field, C.B.; Friedlingstein, P.; Heimann, M.; Hibbard, K. and Kicklighter, D.W. 2000. Belowground consequences of vegetation change and their treatment in models. Ecological Applications 10(2): 470-483.

Jha, M.N.; Gupta, M.K.; Saxena, A. and Kumar, R. 2003. Soil organic carbon store in different forests of India. Indian Forester 129(6): 714-724.

Kanjilal, U.N; Kanjilal, P.C.; Das, A.; De, R.N. and Bor, N.L. 1934 –1940. Flora of Assam. Vols.1–5. Government Press, Shillong. Xxx pages.

Lambers, J.H.R., Harpole, W.S., Tilman, D., Knops, J. and Reich, P.B. 2004. Mechanisms responsible for the positive diversity-productivity relationship in Minnesota grasslands. Ecology Letters 7(8): 661-668.

Lambin, E.F.; Turner, B.L.; Geist, H.J.; Agbola, S.B.; Angelsen, A.; Bruce, J.W.; Coomes, O.T.; Dirzo, R.; Fischer, G.; Folke, C. and George, P. 2001. The causes of land-use and land-cover change moving beyond the myths. Global Environmental Change 11(4): 261-269.

Leemans, R. and Eickhout, B. 2004. Another reason for concern regional and global impacts on ecosystems for different levels of climate change. Global Environmental Change 14(3): 219-228.

Liang, J.; Buongiorno, J.; Monserud, R.A.; Kruger, E.L. and Zhou, M. 2007. Effects of diversity of tree species and size on forest basal area growth, recruitment, and mortality. Forest Ecology and Management 243(1): 116-127.

Loreau, M.; Mouquet, N. and Gonzalez, A. 2003. Biodiversity as spatial insurance in heterogeneous landscapes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 100(22) 12765-12770.

Lugo, A.E.; Sanchez, M.J. and Brown, S. 1986. Land use and organic carbon content of some subtropical soils. Plant and Soil 96(2): 185-196.

Lugo, A.E. and Brown, S. 1992. Tropical forests as sinks of atmo-spheric carbon. Forest Ecology and Management 54: 239-255.

MacDicken, K.G. 1997. A guide to monitoring carbon storage in forestry and agroforestry projects. Forest Carbon Monitoring Program, Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development,USA.

Malhi, Y. and Grace, J. 2000. Tropical forests and atmospheric carbon dioxide. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15(8): 332-337.

Menhinick, E.F. 1964. A comparison of some species individuals diversity indices applied to samples of field insects. Ecology 45(4): 859-861.

Muller–Dombois, D. and Ellenberg, H. 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. John Wiley, New York. 547 pages.

Negi, J.D.S. 1984. Biological Productivity and Cycling of Nutrients in Managed and Manmade Ecosystem. Ph.D. Thesis, Garhwal University, Garhwal. Xx pages.

NRSC (National Remote Sensing Centre) 2011. Land-Use Land-Cover Atlas of India (Based on Multi-temporal Satellite Data of 2005–06). National Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad.

Pacala, S.W.; Hurtt, G.C.; Baker, D.; Peylin, P.; Houghton, R.A.; Birdsey, R.A.; Heath, L.; Sundquist, E.T.; Stallard, R.F.; Ciais, P. and Moorcroft, P. 2001. Consistent land-and atmosphere-based US carbon sink estimates. Science 292(5525): 2316-2320.

Palm, C.A.; Houghton, R.A.; Melillo, J.M. and Skole, D.L. 1986. Atmospheric carbon dioxide from deforestation in Southeast Asia. Biotropica 18(3): 177-188.

Pando-Moreno, M.; Jurado, E.; Manzano, M. and Estrada, E. 2004. The influence of land use on desertification processes. Journal of Range Management 57(3): 320-324.

Percival, H.J.; Parfitt, R.L. and Scott, N.A. 2000. Factors controlling soil carbon levels in New Zealand grasslands: Is clay content important? Soil Science Society of America Journal 64(5): 1623-1630.

Pibumrung, P.; Gajaseni, N. and Popan, A. 2008. Profiles of carbon stocks in forest, reforestation and agricultural land, Northern Thailand. Journal of Forestry Research 19(1): 11-18.

Pielou, E.C. 1966. The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. Journal of Theoretical Biology 13 : 131–144.

Post, W.M. and Mann, L.K. 1990. Changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen as a result of cultivation. Pages 401-406, In: Bouwman, A.F (Editor) Soils and the Greenhouse Effect. John Wiley, New York.

Puget, P. and Drinkwater, L.E. 2001. Short-term dynamics of root-and shoot-derived carbon from a leguminous green manure. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65(3): 771-779.

Ram, S.C. and Ramakrishnan, P.S. 1988. Hydrology and soil fertility of degraded grasslands at Cherrapunji in northeastern India. Environmental Conservation 15(01): 29-35.

Raizada, A.; Parandiyal, A.K. and Ghosh, B.N. 2003. Estimation of Carbon Flux through litter fall in forest plantations of India. Indian Forester 129 (7): 881-894.

Ravindranath, N.H. and Sathaye, J.A. 2002. Climate change and developing countries. Pages 247-265, In: Ravindranath, N.H. and Sathaye, J.A. (Editors) Climate Change and Developing Countries. Springer, Dordrecht.

Richards, C.L.; Carstens, B.C. and Lacey Knowles, L. 2007. Distribution modelling and statistical phylogeography an integrative framework for generating and testing alternative biogeographical hypotheses. Journal of Biogeography 34(11): 1833-1845.

Sayer, E.J.; Heard, M.S.; Grant, H.K.; Marthews, T.R. and Tanner, E.V. 2011. Soil carbon release enhanced by increased tropical forest litterfall. Nature Climate Change 1(6): 304-307.

Schimel, D.S.; House, J.I.; Hibbard, K.A.; Bousquet, P.; Ciais, P.; Peylin, P.; Braswell, B.H.; Apps, M.J.; Baker, D.; Bondeau, A. and Canadell, J. 2001. Recent patterns and mechanisms of carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems. Nature 414(6860): 169-172.

Schlesinger, W.H. 1990. Evidence from chronosequence studies for a low carbon-storage potential of soils. Nature 348(6298): 232-234.

Sedjo, R.A.; Sohngen, B. and Jagger, P. 2001. Carbon sinks in the post-Kyoto world. Climate Change Economics and Policy. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC. Xx pages.

Shanon, C.E. and Wiener, W. 1963. The Mathematical Theory of Communities. University of Illinois Press. Urbana. Xx pages.

Simpson, E.M. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature 163: 688.

Singh, J., Borah, I.P. and Boruah, A., 1995. Soil characteristics under three different plant communities of North-East India. Indian Forester 121(12): 1130-1134.

Singh, O.P.; Datta, B. and Rao, C.N. 1991. Pedochemical character-isation and genesis of soils in relation to altitude in Mizoram. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 39(4): 739-750.

Sombroek, W.G.; Nachtergaele, F.O. and Hebel, A. 1993. Amounts dynamics and sequestering of carbon in tropical Southeast Asia. Biotropica 18: 177-188.

Talbot, J.D. 2010. Carbon and Biodiversity Relationships in Tropical Forests. Multiple Benefits Series. 4. Prepared on behalf of the UN-REDD Programme. School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds / UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge.

Uma Shankar and Tripathi, R.S. 1996. Evaluating second year cropping on jhum fallows in Mizoram, north-eastern India: Phytomass dynamics and primary productivity. Journal of Biosciences 21(4): 563-575.

Usoltsev, V.A. and Vanclay, J.K. 1995. Stand biomass dynamics of pine plantations and natural forests on dry steppe in Kazakhstan. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 10(1-4): 305-312.

Ussiri, D.A.N.; Lal, R. and Jacinthe, P.A. 2006. Soil properties and carbon sequestration of afforested pastures in reclaimed minesoils of Ohio. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70(5): 1797-1806.

V.N., Komarov, A.S.; Mikhailov, A.V. and Bykhovets, S.S. 2011. Modelling carbon and nitrogen dynamics in forest ecosystems of Central Russia under different climate change scenarios and forest management regimes. Ecological Modelling 222(14): 2262-2275.

Walkley, A. and Black, I.A. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science 37(1): 29-38.

Waring, R. H.; Way, J.; Hunt, E.R.; Morrissey, L.; Ranson, K. J.; Weishampel, J.F.; Oren, R. and Franklin, S.E. 1995. Imaging radar for ecosystem studies. BioScience 45: 715-723.

Yu-sheng, Y.; Jian-fen, G.; Yan-li, L.; Rui-yu, Lin; and Guang-shui, Chen. 2002. Composition and properties of soil humus in a mixed forest of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Tsoongio-dendron odorum. Journal of Forestry Research 13(1): 33-36.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

COPYRIGHT of this Journal vests fully with the National Instional Institute of Ecology. Any commercial use of the content on this site in any form is legally prohibited.