Tree Diversity and Population Structure of a Protected Lowland Tropical Forest in Barail Hill Range, Northeast India

Biswajyoti Bikomiya Deori, Panna Deb, Hilloljyoti Singha

Abstract


Tree species diversity and population structure of a lowland tropical forest in Barail Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam falling under the important Barail Hill Range of Northeast India was carried out during 2012-2015. 42 quadrat (20m x 25m) were laid in three forest stands selected on the basis of location and species dominance in the lowland forests of the sanctuary following random sampling method. The vegetation data collected were analyzed for density, frequency, basal area, and the Importance Value Index (IVI). Familial importance value was also worked out. Tree Species diversity was calculated following Shannon diversity index and Concentration of Dominance was calculated by Simpson’s Index. Population structure was worked out based on the girth of individual trees belonging to different species. A total of 109 tree species (≥ 30 cm gbh), belonging to 45 families were rerecorded from the sanctuary. Tree species richness was recorded highest for stand I that comprised 88 tree species, followed by stand III (69 tree species) and stand II (48 tree species). Meliaceae, Sapindaceae and Sterculaiceae were the dominant families in different stands. Shannon diversity index was found highest in stand I (4.01) followed by stand III (3.87) and stand II (3.61). The dominant species in stand I were Canarium strictum (IVI 17.58) While in stand II, it was Maniltoa polyandra (IVI 22.31) and Elaeocarpus macrocerus (IVI 19.84) in stand III. The population structure of all the three stands showed a reverse J-shaped curve where as in case of the dominant tree species, individuals in different stands were unequally distributed. The lowland forests of Barail Wildlife Sanctuary are a repository of huge biodiversity in the very important Barail Hill Range landscape of Northeast India that falls under the Indo-Burma Hotspot of biodiversity. Being the only protected area in the entire South Assam region, it acts as an important refuge for the native plants and animals, including the rare, endangered and threatened species of the region. The study would contribute a great deal towards the understanding of tree species composition, diversity, species coexistence and population structure of this very important wildlife sanctuary which will pave the way for its better management and conservation.
Key Words: Species Diversity, Richness, Structure, Lowland Tropical Forest, Barail Wildlife Sanctuary

References


Anonymous. 2011. Management Plan of Barail Wildlife Sanctuary, Cachar & Karimganj forest Division. Department of Environment and Forests, Govt. of Assam, Guwahati. 95 pages.

Bhuyan, P.; Khan, M.L. and Tripathi, R.S. 2003. Tree diversity and population structure in undisturbed and human-impacted stands of tropical wet evergreen forests in Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya, India. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 1753-1773.

Borah, N. and Garkoti, S.C. 2011. Tree species composition, diversity and regeneration patterns in undisturbed and disturbed forests of Barak Valley, South Assam, India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 37: 131-141.

Brandt, C.A. and Rickard, W.H. 1994. Alien taxa in the North American shrub steppe four decades after cessation of livestock grazing and cultivation agriculture. Biodiversity and Conservation 68: 95-106.

Brokaw, N.V.L. 1987. Gap-phase regeneration of three pioneer tree species in a tropical forest. Journal of Ecology 75: 9-19.

Campbell, D.G.; Stone, J.L. and Rosas, J.A. 1992. A comparison of the phytosociology and dynamics of three floodplain (varzea) forest of known ages, Rio Jurua, western Brazilian Amazon. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 108(3): 213-237.

Cannon, C.N.; Peart, D.R.; Leighton, M. 1998. Tree species diversity in commercially logged Bornean Rainforest. Science 281(5381): 1366-8.

Champion, S.H. and Seth, S.K. 1968 (Reprint 2005). A Revised Survey of the Forest Types of India. Natraj Publishers, Dehradun. 404 pages.

Connell, J.H. 1971. On the role of natural enemies in preventing competitive exclusion in some marine animals and in rain forest trees. Pages 298-312, In: den Boer, P.J. and Gradwell, G.R (Editors) Dynamics of Number in Population. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen.

Curtis, J.T. 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin. An Ordination of Plant Communities. University Wisconsin Press, Madison. Wisconsin. 657 pages.

Curtis, J.T. and McIntosh, R.P. 1950. The interrelations of certain analytic and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology 31: 434-455.

Das, A. 2008. Diversity and Distribution of Herpeto fauna and Evaluation of their Conservation Status in Barail Hill Range (including Barail Wildlife Sanctuary), Assam, Northeast India. Final Report: Barail Herpetofauna Project, Aaranyak, Guwahati. 93 pages.

Das, S. and Sharma, G.D. 2013. Inventorization of Marchantiophyta in Barail wildlife Sanctuary Assam, India with special reference to their microhabitat. Archive for Bryology 166: 1–27.

Deb, D.B. 1983. The Flora of Tripura State, Vols. 1-2.Today and Tomorrow Printer and Publishers, New Delhi. 602 pages.

Deb, P. and Sundriyal, R.C. 2008. Tree regeneration and seedling survival patterns in old growth lowland tropical rainforest in Namdapha National Park, North East India. Forest Ecology and Management 255(12): 3995-4006.

Deb, P. and Sundriyal, R.C. 2011. Vegetation dynamics of an old growth lowland tropical rainforest in North East India: Species composition and stand heterogeneity. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 3(9): 405-430.

Deb, P.; Sundriyal, R.C. and Shankar, U. 2009. Tree diversity and population structure in a lowland tropical rainforest in the Eastern Himalayans, India. Indian Forester 135: 1526-1544.

De Oliveira, A.A. and Mori, S.A. 1999. A central Amazonian terra firma forest I. High tree species richness on poor soil. Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 1219-1244.

Elouard, C.; Pascal, J.P.; Pelissier, R.; Ramesh, B.R.; Houllier, F.; Durand, M.; Aravajy, S.; Moravie, M.A. and Gimaret-Carpentier, C. 1997. Monitoring the structure and dynamics of a dense moist evergreen forest in the Western Ghats (Kodaw District, Karnataka, India). Journal of Tropical Ecology 38: 193-214.

Emden, HVandFritz, H. 2008. Statistics for Terrified Biologists. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK. 343 pages

Hammer, Ø.; Harper, D.A.T. and Ryan, P.D. 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1): 1-9.

Haridasan, K. and Rao, R.R. 1985. Forest Flora of Meghalaya, Vol.1. Bishen Singh and Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, 451pages.

Hartshorn, G.S. 1980. Neotropical forest dynamics. Biotropica 12: 23-30.

Ho, C.C.; Newbery, D.M. and Poore, M.E.D. 1987. Forest composition and inferred dynamics in Jengka forest Reserve, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 3: 25-56.

Hooker, J.D. 1872-1879. The Flora of British India.7 vols. London.

Hubbell, S.P. 1979. Tree dispersion, abundance and diversity in a tropical dry forest. Science 203: 1299-1309.

Itow, S. and Mueller-Dombois, D. 1998. Popuation structure, stand-level dieback and recovery of Scalesia pedunclata forests in the Galapagos Islands. Ecological Research 3: 333–339.

Jacobs, M. 1987. The Tropical Rainforest. Springer Verlag, New York. 285 pages

Jamir, S.A. 2000. Studies on Plant Biodiversity, Community Structure and Population Behaviour of Dominant Tree Species of Some Sacred Groves of Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya. Ph.D. Thesis, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, India.

Janzen, D.N. 1970. Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forest. American naturalist 104: 501-528.

Johnston, M. and Gillman, M. 1995. Tree population studies in low-diversity forests, Guyana I. Floristic composition and stand structure. Biodiversity and Conservation 4: 339–362.

Kadavul, K. and Parthasarathy, N. 1999. Structure and composition of woody species in tropical semi-evergreen forest of Kalrayan hills, Eastern Ghats, India. Tropical Ecology 40: 247–260.

Kadavul, K. and Parthasarathy, N. 2000. Regeneration pattern of woody species in tropical semi-evergreeen forests of Sherva-rayan Hills, Eastern Ghats, south India. International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 26: 37-48.

Kanjilal, U.N.; Kanjilal, P.C.; Das, A.; De, R.N. and Bor, N.L. 1934-1940. Flora of Assam. 5 Volumes. Govt. Press, Shillong. xc+2230 pages.

Kaul, R.N. and Haridasan, K. 1987. Forest types of Arunachal Pradesh, a preliminary study. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 9: 379-389.

Keel, S.H.K. and Prance, G.T. 1979. Studies of the vegetation of a white-sand black-water igapo (Rio Negro, Brazil). ActaAmazonica 9: 645-655.

Kellman, M.; Tackaberry, R. and Lesley, R. 1998. Structure and function in two tropical gallery forest communities, implication for forest conservation in fragmented system. Journal of Applied Ecology 35: 195–206

Kessler, M.; Kebler, P.J.A.; Gradstein, S.R.; Bach Kerstin, B.; Schmull, M.; Pitopang, R. 2005. Tree diversity in primary forest and different land use systems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 547–560.

Khan, M.L.; Raj, P.N.; Tripathi, R.S. 1986. Regeneration and survival of tree seedlings and sprouts in tropical deciduous and sub-tropical forests of Meghalaya, India. Forest Ecology and Management 14 (4): 293-304..

Khumbongmayum, A.D.; Khan, M.L. and Tripathi, R.S. 2006. Biodiversity conservation in sacred groves of Manipur, north-east India: population structure and regeneration status of woody species. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 2439–2456.

Knight, D.H. 1963. A distance method for constructing forest profile diagrams and obtaining structural data. Tropical Ecology 4: 89-94.

Knight, D.H. 1975. A phytosociological analysis of species rich tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Ecological Monographs 45: 259-284.

Kumar, A.; Marcot, B.G. and Saxena, A. 2006. Tree species diversity and distribution patterns in tropical forests of Garo Hills. Current Science India 91(10): 1070-1082.

Lieberman, D.; Lieberman, M.; Hartshorn, G. and Peralta, R. 1985. Growth rates and age–size relationships of tropical wet forest trees in Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 1: 97–109.

Lieberman, M.; Peralta, R. and Hartshorn, G.S. 1996. Tropical forest structure and composition on a large-scale altitudinal gradient in Costa Rica.Journal of Ecology 84: 137–152.

Lovett, J.C.; Clarke, G.P.; Moore, R. and Morrey, G.H. 2001. Elevational distribution of restricted range forest tree taxa in Eastern Tanzania. Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 541–550.

Macdonald, I.A.W.; Loope, L.L. and Usher, M.B. 1989. Wildlife conservation and the invasion of nature reserves by introduced species: a global perspective. Pages 215-255, In: Drake, J.A.; Mooney, H.A. di Castri, F.; Groves, R.H.; Kruger, F.J.; Rejmánek, M. and Williamson, M. (Editors) Biological Invasion: A Global Perspective. John Wiley, Chichester, U.K.

Manokaran, N. and Kochummen, K.M. 1987. Recruitment, growth and mortality of tree species in a lowland Dipterocarp forest in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Ecology 3: 315–330.

Mishra, B.P.; Tripathi, R.S.; Tripathi, O.P. and Pandey, H.N. 2003. Effects of disturbance on the regeneration of four dominant and economically important woody species in a broad-leaved subtropical humid forest of Meghalaya, north east India. Current Science India 84(11): 1449-1453.

Misra, R. 1968. Ecology Workbook. Oxford & IBH Publishing, New Delhi. 242 pages

Mori, S.A.; Boom, B.M.; Carvalho, A.M. and dos Santos, T.S. 1983. Southern Bahain moist forests. Botanical Review 49: 155–232.

Muller-Dombois, D. and Ellenberg, H. 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. John Wiley, New York. 547 pages.

Nadkarni, N.M; Matelson, T.S. and Haber, W.A. 1995. Structural characteristics and floristic composition of Neotropical cloud forest, Monte Verde, Costa Rica. Journal of Ecology 11: 481-495.

Nandy, S. and Das, A.K. 2013. Comparing tree diversity and population structure between a traditional agro forestry system and natural forests of Barak valley, Northeast India. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 9(2): 104-113.

Nath, P.C.; Arunachalam, A. Khan, M.L.; Arunachalam, K. and Barbhuiya, A.R. 2005. Vegetation analysis and tree population structure of tropical wet evergreen forests in and around Namdapha National Park, northeast India. Biodiversity and Conservation 14: 2109–2136.

Paijmans, K. 1970. An analysis of four tropical rainforest sites in New Guinea. Journal of Ecology. 58: 77-101.

Parthasarathy, N. 1999. Tree diversity and distribution in undisturbed and human-impacted sites of tropical wet evergreen forest in southern Western Ghats, India. Biodiversity and Conservation 8: 1365-1381.

Parthasarathy, N. 2001. Change in forest composition and structure in three sites of tropical evergreen forest around Sengaltheri, Western Ghats. Current Science 80: 389-393.

Parthasarathy, N. and Karthikeyan, R. 1997. Plant biodiversity inventory and conservation of two tropical dry evergreen forests on the Coromandel Coast, south India. Biodiversity and Conservation 6 (8): 1063-1083.

Philips, E.A. 1959. Method of Vegetation Study. Henry Holt and Co., New York. 107 pages.

Poore, M.E.D. 1968. Studies in Malaysian rainforest 1. The forest on Triassic sediments in Jengka forest reserve. Journal of Ecology l: 143-196.

Proctor, J.; Haridasan K. and Smith, G.W. 1998. How far north does low land evergreen tropical rain forest go? Global Ecology & Biogeography Letters 7 (2): 141-146.

Rabha, D. and Das, A.K. 2014. PaanJhum: A traditional agroforestry system of North East India and its efficacy in climate change mitigation. Page 34, In: Abstract of Tropical Ecology Congress, Organized by School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 10th -12th December 2014.

Rao, K.S.; Reddy, G.V.N. and Reddy, M.R. 1997. Urea treated sunflower straw and mulberry hay in the rations of crossbred cattle, The Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 67 (9): 808-810.

Rao, P.; Barik, S.K.; Pandey, H.N. and Tripathi, R.S. 1990 Community composition and tree population in a subtropical broad–leaved forest along a disturbance gradient. Vegetatio 88: 151–162.

Rao, R.R. and Murti, S.K. 1990. Northeast India – a major centre for plant diversity in India. Indian Journal of Forestry 13(3): 214–222.

Richards, P.W. 1996. The Tropical Rainforest, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 450 pages

Saxena, A.K. and Singh, J.S. 1982. A phytosociological analysis of woody species in forest communities of a part of Kumaon Himalaya. Vegetatio 50: 3-22.

Shannon, C.E. and Wiener, W. 1963. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. University of Illionis Press, Urbana, Illinois, 117 pages.

Simpson, E.H. 1949. Measurement of diversity. Nature 163: 688.

Singh, J.S.; Singh, S.P. and Gupta, S.R. 2006. Ecology, Environment & Resource Conservation, Anamaya Publishers, New Delhi, 190-191 pp.

Singh, J.S.; Singh, S.P.; Saxena, A.K. and Rawat, Y.S. 1981. The Silent Valley Forest Ecosystem and Possible Impact of Proposed Hydroelectric Project. Report on the Silent Valley Study, Ecology Research Circle, Kumaun University, Nainital, India. 86 pages.

Sist, P. and Saridan, A. 1999. Stand structure and floristic composition of a primary lowland Dipterocarp forest in East Kalimantan. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11: 704-722.

Sukumar, R.; Dattaraja, H.S.; Suresh, H.S.; Radhakrishnan, J.; Vasudev, R.; Nirmala, S. and Joshi, N.V. 1992. Long–term monitoring of vegetation in a tropical deciduous forest in Mudumalai, southern India. Current Science 62: 608–616.

Sundriyal, R.C.; Sharma, E.; Rai, L.K. and Rai, S.C. 1994. Tree structure, regeneration mass removal in a sub-tropical forest of Mamlay watershed in Sikkim Himalaya. Vegetatio113: 53-63.

Swaine, M.D.; Lieberman, D. and Putz, F.E. 1987. The dynamics of tree populations in tropical forest: a review. Journal of Tropical Ecology 3: 359–366.

Swamy, P.S.; Sundrapandian, S.M.; Chandrasekar, P. and Chandrasekaran, S. 2000. Plant species diversity and tree population structure of humid tropical forest in Tamil Nadu, India. Biodiversity and Conservation 9:1643-1669.

Thorington, Jr R. W.; Tannenbaum, B.; Tarak, A. and Rudran, R. 1982. Distrubation of trees on the Barro Colorado Island: a five hectare sample. Pages 83-94, In: Leigh, E.G. Jr; Rand, A.J. and Windsor, D.M. (Editors) The Ecology of Tropical Forest: Seasonal Rhythms and Long-Term Changes. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Timilsina, N.; Ross, M.S. and Heinen, J.T. 2007. A community analysis of sal (Shorea robusta) forests in the western Terai of Nepal. Forest Ecology and Management 241: 223-234.

Upadhaya, K.; Pandey, H.N.; Law, P.S. and Tripathi, R.S. 2003. Tree diversity in sacred groves of the Jaintia hills in Meghalaya, northeast India. Biodiversity and Conservation 12(3): 583–597.

Vázquez, J.A. and Givnish, T.J. 1998. Altitudinal gradients in tropical forest composition, structure in Sierra de Manantlán. Journal of Ecology 86: 999–1020.

Whitmore, T.C. 1984. Tropical Rainforest of the Far East. Second edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 352 pages.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

COPYRIGHT of this Journal vests fully with the National Instional Institute of Ecology. Any commercial use of the content on this site in any form is legally prohibited.